Perpetuum mobile Struski
17/05/2011 08:33 - Andrzej Struski




Perpetuum mobile (from Latin perpetually moving) – a hypothetical machine of  which the principle of work contrary to the known laws of physics will enable it to work indefinitely. The attempts to construct a perpetuum mobile have already been made in the XIIIth century and      a particular interest  in this concept occurred in the XVIth and XVIIth century.


The works that were undertaken before the XIXth century may be regarded as the attempts to develop the scientific concepts that were not confirmed.



Perpetuum mobile refers to the idea of a continuous activity of an isolated  mechanical device or a different closed system that works without the sustaining source of energy and without the supply of energy. The idea of a machine that after it had been constructed and set in motion could work forever  without supplying it with the fuel or any kind of energy has constituted a tempting and elusive  dream of mankind.


According to the present-day knowledge the constructions of this type are impossible and the attempts that are made today are regarded as pseudoscience. A circle of amateur constructors makes the attempts of this kind, sometimes they even maintain that they worked out successful constructions based on new unknown ideas or unverified phenomena and unknown sources of energy. This movement is a part of the movement of free energy.


In spite of the discrepancy of the work of such a machine with the laws of physics, the near fantasy considerations are a very strong stimulus for  new ideas. Also the veracity of the second law of thermodynamics is undermined.




Perpetuum mobile of the first kind



Perpetuum mobile of the first kind is a hypothetical machine which generates more energy than it uses itself, i.e. it does work without taking energy from the outside or the work it does is bigger than the energy it takes. It would be a self-propelled mechanism. To the name of perpetuum mobile aspired many constructions – at first the mechanical ones and when the constructions of the heat engines were started the attempts to construct the machines based on gas changes  were made.



Perpetuum mobile of the second kind



Perpetuum mobile of the second kind is a cyclical machine which converts thermal energy into mechanical work without the increase of a complete entropy. Such a machine would be for example the heat engine that takes heat from the surroundings which next would be completely converted into work. Such an engine would not give heat away to the surroundings and its efficiency would be 100%.


The work of the machine of such a kind would not contradict the energy conservation law (or at   the same time the first law of thermodynamics) but it would be inconsistent with the second law of thermodynamics.




The  Genius of the Human Mind








The Gravity Drive of a Wheel is the first such an invention submitted to the Patent Office of  the Republic of Poland of which the principle of work against the known laws of physics – or rather mechanics enabled the work of the device endlessly and it works without the supply of energy from the outside.


The invented mechanism has such a potential of power that it should have a brake or a lock of  the rotation installed for the time of the construction, conservation or repair.


The patent application in the Patent Office of the Republic of Poland under the number P. 393474 the title of the invention “ THE GRAVITY DRIVE OF A WHEEL” authors Andrzej and Magdalena Struscy.


This schematic drawing depicts the essence of the use of jointed  levers as the arms that allow for the automatic change of the length of the lever that transmits power that is being obtained from the force of gravity in the system of the drive of a wheel or an axis. The arm loaded on its part that is installed at the farthest allows for the displacement of this weight in a different distance from the axis during one rotation of the mechanism. Falling under the influence of gravitation the spread arm creates greater force than the arm that is situated at the other side of the axis which because of  a proper construction of the joints under the influence of the same gravitational attraction rolls up as close to the axis as it is possible.


The principle of the work of this mechanism shown on this schematic drawing does not illustrate all  possible ways of installing the arms or their different constructions.


If the particular arms will be installed on the axis in such a way that each next one is moved and its construction does not have contact with the construction of the neighbour then a maximal approach of the weight to the axis on the side of the loss of power can be obtained. Such a way of the installation of the arms will allow to obtain a maximal difference in the length of the lever and  it will allow to increase the efficiency of the mechanism. A magnet installed on the axis which with a small attraction force  will change the position of the weight that is hanging inertly in this place will be an additional factor supporting an advantageous position of the weight on the side of the loss of power.


In order to increase the  elasticity of work there should be installed  in the joints the buffers that will keep down the vibrations and sounds during the unrolling of the arm. The unrolling itself should be supported by the expansion mechanisms that will accelerate  the time of unrolling of the arm to its full range. This technical issue has an influence on the attainment of a longer way of work of the weight on the side of the attainment of power from the force of the gravitational attraction. The mechanisms that are keeping down and supporting the unrolling can be advantageously equipped with permanent magnets. The construction equipped in such a way will be characterised by a longer stability of work and the reduction of  oppressive loudness.


We worked out the gravity drive of a wheel at the moment of the need. The windmill on a revolving base that was patented by us is characterised by such a construction of the turbine where its blades are located only on the periphery.


I thought that it would be worth to use an extra drive that would turn it at the time when the wind is not blowing. A wheel in such a kind of a turbine may and it even should have a big weight which will influence the inertia of the mechanism during work. On such a mass additional weights installed on the periphery will set the wheel in motion (elastic enough during the change of their position) on condition that on the opposite side of the axis they will be able to approach it automatically. We did not need much time to invent jointed levers. As the result I had an idea to construct the mechanism that will fulfil the essence of the machine that works under the influence of the gravitational force that is perpetuum mobile.



Additional explanatory information



By reason of the feature of the term perpetuum mobile itself I decided  to add additional information of our solution I do it so as to explain doubts that the people who are reading and who are interested in it may have.


The information about perpetuum mobile that is being  published depicts the description of the device that can be seen in the picture. In relation to our solution  I would like to extend  the information contained in the technical description that may be strict.


The application of the invention is its description which should precisely depict the essence of the matter whereas the picture is only an accessory form.


The technical feature of our invention that is of great value the one that we are convinced will predominate over the problems connected with the essence of perpetuum mobile is presented only in the description, it is not visible in the picture. This feature is depicted in the words contained in the contents of the article:




“The principle of the work of this mechanism shown on this schematic drawing does not illustrate all  possible ways of installing the arms or their different constructions.




If the particular arms will be installed on the axis in such a way that each next one is moved and its construction does not have contact with the construction of the neighbour then  a maximal approach of the weight to the axis on the side of the loss of power can be obtained. Such a way of the installation of the arms will allow to obtain a maximal difference in  the length of the lever and  it will allow to increase the efficiency of the mechanism. A magnet installed on the axis which with a small attraction force  will change the position of the weight that is hanging inertly in this place will be an additional factor supporting an advantageous position of the weight on the side of the loss of power.”



To describe this technical issue in more broad terms I will say that our construction  composed of a series of jointed arms does not have to be installed on the disc of a wheel it has to drive and at the same time fulfil the principle of perpetuum mobile.




A set of arms regardless of this how many of them are used (the more the better) is installed on the axis two in one plane. They create a spiral set of any length. Such a way of installing   the arms allows to  maximally shorten the lever on the side of the loss of power. In connection with such a shortening of the arm-lever we will obtain a maximal efficiency of the device and the number of the pairs of arms on the axis will multiply its power.



This technical solution that is the most important in our invention is not visible on the schematic drawing. It is described in the text that explains the principles of the structure of the construction, however this description may be insufficient and not readable enough that is why I add this complementary information.




©  Andrzej and Magdalena Struscy.  




The answers in relation to the questions that refer to perpetuum mobile




MAS 23.01.2011 15:10


In the light of the comments that refer to our solution I would like to ask all the people who are interested in it to read very carefully the content that describes the structure of this device.

The application of the invention is accepted on the basis of its description not the picture which is only an additional element – a schematic demonstration of the construction.

The term “schematic” itself says that it is not precise, thus the picture is only an accessory element of the description of the construction. The essence of our solution is included in the description.

I can only add that this essence depicts the construction of the arms that are spirally fastened on   the axis of any length. The picture depicts three arms that are working – it results from the cause of the spiral structure of the arms. The upper arm is opened in this position because there are working adequate mechanisms also indicated in the description.


Regards, Magdalena Struska.




MAS 23.01.2011 17:31


answer to ki-matik


the given link shows the basic geometrical forms, my husband has no possibility to present computer animations. He constructed physically the whole set of the basic geometrical forms many years ago, the biggest achievement is the solid figure which we called the Harp and the Lyre.


This base of knowledge  about the geometrical spaces contained in the memory  allowed for many solutions.


Realista, such a dispute is strictly academic, many people use it and they achieve nothing, “the success consists not in looking for problems but in activity”.

If we find the executor of the project we will prove that this machine will work as the  arrangement of the arms arranged in rows allows to lead the weight very near the axis on the side of the loss of power. It does not matter how big is the friction the difference in the length of the lever is decisive. While there is such a difference between the lengths of the levers one working weight will balance   a few weights that are being pulled up. We should get a big reserve of power.


Regards, Magdalena Struska




MAS 23.01.2011 21:29


Ki-matiK, on the site the solid figures are in the form of computer  graphics, in the near future we will present the photos of the models which were made physically (the set of the solid figures AMAZ has patent protection) the final effect of this set is the instrument the harp and the Lyre which gives the sounds of chimes – it is the only such model in the world and one can see it here:



realista, already the Aztects and not only they knew that the earth is a sphere.

Our different previous solution also should not work according to science and up until today maths is of no use to scientists however the solution received many awards and there were professors in  the committee.

A different issue is the fact that we were perfidiously deceived in this matter by the investor.


Regards, Magdalena Struska.




MAS 23.01.2011 21:52




As it is with most simple solutions also this one came into being by accident. After the patent application in the Patent Office of the Republic of Poland of the partially covered windmill which has a specific wheel there came into being a theoretical possibility of the work of such a wheel when there is no wind, at that time my husband had an idea to use the jointed levers installed on   the disc of such a wheel, as the result of the way of thinking that was concerned with the effective use of jointed levers there came into being the essence of the device based on the spiral jointed arms which on the side of gaining power are unrolled and on the side of losing it they are rolling up automatically.


The further course of reasoning created an aspect of this construction in the form of the installation of such levers on the axis. For example now if a set of levers installed in the disc form gives even    a minute gain of power then a few segments in the form  of spiral sets will create a very effective power.

The cause is simple: on the axis the arm that is pulled up will not lean on a different arm thus        the weight will be lifted very near the axis.

As regards the drawing of Leonardo da Vinci  we became familiar with it only when we were writing the article for this site when a number of the patent application had already been assigned.

Besides, the drawing which was drawn by Leonardo also indicates a simple machine not an outgrowth of some fantastic technical solutions.


Regards, Magdalena Struska.




MAS 25.01.2011 13:15


An additional explanation of technical issues connected with machines of which the features of physical motion are depicted in different pictures which have a common genesis of Perpetuum Mobile all these machines which refer to the use of two-armed levers may work in the aspect of Perpetuum Mobile, however what is necessary is the fulfillment of the principle of a big difference between the arm which is gaining power and the arm which is losing power. Our solution has at its disposal a difference to the range of 2.5-fold proportion of the longer lever which is gaining power to the lever which is losing power.

Such a proportion says that the weight which is gaining power balances 2,5 of the weight which is losing power please compare (it is enough to look at the pictures of different machines) in order to judge these proportions. Most of the machines that are shown have proportions where there is  a one-fold overbalance it is  definitely too small  overbalance for the device to work smoothly and to have a reserve of power to overcome  friction. Such a minimal proportion is when  the working lever is 1,5-fold longer in relation to the lever that is losing power.


Regards, Magdalena Struska




MAS 25.01.2011 13:25


In the light of the proportions of the lever which is gaining power in relation to the lever which is losing power  which refer to the machines that pretend to Perpetuum Mobile the machine of Mr. A. Józewczuk is characterised by the best proportion. However, the track structure which is depicted in the picture makes the work of this machine impossible. The lifting of the ball as the author writes  (in this case there can be no mechanism with the ball!) in the structure of such a track will cause:


  1. Too long way of losing arms in relation to working arms.
  2. The practically vertical way of the ball will cause the resistance which will stop                 the machine.
  3. The insufficient number of arms.


In the light of these technical  problems this machine will not work.


Regards,  Magdalena Struska




MAS 25.01.2011 15:45


realista, the devices indicated in the links do not have much in common with our solution.

  1. The arms in our device never straighten these are spiral arms.
  2. The spiral arms work in a more beneficial way in the mechanics of the lever, nobody has ever presented it before only we. Please, pay attention to the fact that in the picture there are three working arms visible and it would be enough if there were two for the mechanism that is used on the axis to work.
  3. In our construction there are: two-sided lever and one-sided levers.
  4. The arm in our construction where the one-sided lever reaches the axis has a very beneficial lever ratio.
  5. The two-sided arm has very beneficial proportions.


You  say that only an illusion can take place when an inexperienced observer estimates the work of the spiral levers.



The above issues refer to the disc structure once again I would like to remind that the essence of this solution is contained in the description and not in the picture.

The arms which are installed there in pairs do not disturb themselves and the lifting of the weight up can be led very near the axis.

At that time we get at least 2,5-fold proportion which is enough to overcome any friction and to get a reserve of power.

We received the number of patent application which is published here. Traditionally, one may get     a patent in Poland no earlier than after a few years.


Regards, Magdalena Struska




MAS 27.01.2011 20:02


The one-sided lever, this detail is not very well visible on the schematic picture however if one looks precisely on the installation of the first segment of each arm one will be able to see that it leans on the buffer which is more distant from the axis than the installation of this joint. In this place there is a one-sided lever. The use of this lever allows to transfer the forces in a beneficial way on the axis  - it works in such a way as the load which is vertically pressing on     the reel which is installed in a jointed way. At the moment of the deflection  of the reel it obtains  the potential of motion.

An additional handicap of such an installation of the arm is the moment of the change of the direction of its work – at that time the whole set gets the release of the forces that press on this arm.

quote “one ought to remember that admittedly the gravitational force acts vertically down but the force that keeps the load counteracts it, thus the weight that is situated the highest as well as   the one that is situated the lowest do not act with full force ( I say it in an unprofessional but graphic way) “


In extreme moments of the lever on the side of gaining power the weights give the smallest effect. In this aspect the spiral lever has better vectors and we get a bigger power from it.


quote “but “the strengthening” of the spiral arm will not take place in such a way that the centre of gravity is vertically above the axis of the system and only after the overbalance of the arm. So the more spiral it is the later.”


It does not matter if it is earlier or later, however the spiral arm has in this issue a more beneficial feature than the straight arm as the weight installed at the end of the arm in the spiral arm attains the point of work higher and it keeps it although the centre of the arm will  pass the vertical axis in the bottom position. Thus, it has a longer way of work.


Quote “even if the weights are pulled up extremely near the axis they have to be pulled up on exactly the same height from which they are falling and the lever has such a characteristic that to be sure the force that is needed to move the load is smaller but also on a smaller height.”



In this case we take into consideration the two-sided lever and the arm that is losing power has an identical height as the arm that is gaining power, only the weight has a different way, on the way which is losing power the way is much shorter at the same time. If it goes very near the axis then the proportion of forces is to the advantage of the arm that is working. In the case of our solution two and a half-fold proportion is achievable. Even if in order to lift the weight the mechanism will use a two-fold overbalance of the lever (what is very little probable) we will still be left with 0,5 of the proportion as the pure profit. In the spiral mechanism where there is installed on  the axis any series of pairs the sum of these small gains of free power gives the effective work of Perpetuum Mobile.


quote “I know, I have already read about this that the sketch is only a sketch and the description is the most important but it does not explain anything and it does not reveal any new possibilities. I am afraid there will be no reserve of power, but not everybody is Columbus ;)...



In the previous answer we proved the ability of obtainment of free power in the structure of the machine, we presented only one-fifth of the part of the proportional overbalance as free power, thus four parts of the overbalance is a sufficient amount to balance different resistance forces on   the side of the loss of power. Please, pay attention to the fact that if the proportion is zero  the mechanism would act in an inert way it would show neither profit nor loss it could be set in motion if minimal additional power was used many times smaller from the possibility of  the performance of  the weight.

This situation would obviously take place if the arms were stiff. The arms are jointed that is why we assume that the two-fold potential of the weight will balance any losses of power and half of its potential will be free power.

When there are two pairs of arms it will be the potential of one weight and when there are 20 pairs of arms it will be the potential of 10 weights. The mechanism constructed in this way will undoubtedly fulfil the features of Perpetuum Mobile.


Regards, Magdalena Struska

Andrzej Struski.




MAS 28.01.2011 18:06


realista quote “ realista ”the lever” serves only the purpose of stopping the arm that is being inclined. It does not matter in this construction, as despite of this what you are writing it is important here if the straightening of the arm takes place earlier or later. And the shape of the arms does not really matter here. The work on both sides of the lever will be the same regardless of  the shapes used. You are wrong when you write about the smaller way and the benefits it may produce.”


Not for the purpose of stopping but it serves for the support, and the point of support of the arm distanced from the point of its installation creates automatically the lever. The relation of the length of the part from the installation to the support to the part behind the support is the proportion of    the one-sided lever a similar principle in the axis of gravitation has a gyroscope.

Be that as it may, this type of installation of the arm must cause the occurrence of additional effects, it would not cause them only if the whole set was not in motion.

In the spiral arm the straightening never takes place, and the weight obtains the point of support in relation to the first part (the first part indicates the position of the straight lever) quicker than the weight on the straight arm at the same time it attains a longer way of work.


Thus, the shape of the arms has a great importance.

The work of the spiral lever in the area of the loss of power is more beneficial in relation to the straight lever in connection with the construction of the joints itself that can be used in both levers,  the joints of the straight lever must have a bigger range of mechanical work if it is to roll up as far as to the axis and this prolongs the time of its unrolling on the side of gaining power what has an effect in an additional loss of the part of the way of work.



But the spiral one will roll up as far as to the axis and its joints do not have to do such a long mechanical work as in the straight lever at the same time the fenders  of the joints will bounce the successive parts quicker and the lever will unroll quicker.


Regards, Magdalena Struska de Merowing.

Andrzej Struski de Merowing.