DSS – Dead Sea Scrolls part 2
31/01/2012 14:27 - Magdalena Struska de Merowing.




The calendar of the feasts in the community of Qumran.


The basis was the solar ancient calendar of priestly origin which did not use Babylonian  or Canaanite names of the months but only simply numerated them. One can find the information about this calendar in i.e. Ez.45,18-20; Jub.6,29-33; and 1 Enoch 74,11-12;82,;  The calendar had 364 days arranged into 4 seasons of which each one had 3 months of 30,30 and 31 days or 13 weeks what in the result gives a yearly cycle of 52 weeks. In this calendar each one of   the feasts fell on the same day of the week each year.


The most important feasts:


New Year's Day         


Festival of Unleavened Bread 

Waving of the Sheaf  or Festival of the first Barley  

Festival of Weeks or Feast of the Firstfruits of Wheat

the Feast of New Wine

the Feast of Oil

the Feast of Wood 

Seventh month

Day of Atonement 

Festival of Booths

and Tamid every day, Sabbath offering, offering during the ordination of the priests.


Was the community of Qumran waiting for the Messiah?


The so-called sectarian writings speak about the expected coming of the Prophet and the Messiahs.


What is significant is the fact that there were two Messiahs expected in Qumran, however we will find in the Qumran texts no information about an exceptional Messiah who was to have such a role in the realization of salvation  as the New Testament ascribes to the Messiah Jesus.


The future of the dynasty of David one can find in 1 Sam 2,10.35; Ps132,7;


Who was the “Teacher of Righteousness”.


In the Qumran manuscripts he is identified as a priest or the “Teacher of the Community”.

He was regarded as the one who was endowed by God with a special gift to understand

Writing [Scriptures], and the “words of His servants and Prophets” in particular. {1QHab7,5}; He was never called  by his name in the texts, but the details as regards his figure can be found in 1QpHab 1,13; 2,2; 5,10; 7,4; 8,3; 9,9-10; 11,5;


The texts mention that the “Teacher of Righteousness” was persecuted by a “Wicked Priest”.


In 4QPBless-4Q252 1v 3 the phrase  semach David the „shoot of David” was used in relation to    the figure called masziach hassedeq the “Messiah of  Righteousness”.



According to a paraphrase  Sam7,11-14; this title is given to a successor of the throne of David “I will be a father to him and he will be a son to me” refers to the shoot of David that will come together with the “Explainer of the Law” who will stand on Sion in the final times. {4QFlor-4Q174, 1-3 and 11-12};


The texts that mention the coming of the “Explainer of the Law at the End of times”


“Doresz hattorac – the texts of the “Explainer of the Law”, in one of them he is expected as          the companion, of the shoot of David” {4QFlor -4Q 174-1-2 i 11-12} whereas in some other text – as the “Star” from the oracle of Ballaam {Lb24,17; reference CD7,18};


According to these manuscripts one of the tasks of the “Teacher of Righteousness” as someone who was inspired by God was a specific interpretation of the Law and the Prophets {1QpHab 7,5};



Some of the chosen fragments of the scrolls from Qumran.




Palestine, the Dead Sea 1947 a Bedouin shepherd finds in Qumran near Jerusalem the scrolls written in Aramaic and Hebrew and among them there were the manuscripts older than the Old Testament and also the later ones that referred to the Essenes and the beginnings of Christianity.



They hide the information that may shake the foundations of the church.



Fragments: The Lost Scroll


“Where does this disarray among the nations come from,


Why the earthy kings are in revolt?


And the princes are allying themselves with them; Against the Lord,


Against His Anointed?


Just before the end of the world


The Godless will ally themselves


against the Teacher of Righteousness to destroy him,


But their intentions will not be successful


Kittim---dominate over many nations.


Princes, eldership,


And the priests from Jerusalem who govern Israel


Their High Council --- everybody helped them.


He knew what kind of fate awaited him


He also knew that he would come back in glory,


To govern the nations,


And to judge them...


Some expected that there would be a miracle, that he will rise from the dead in the light of glory ...


Others were saying they saw a light lightning in the sky,


Some others were saying that they saw him while they were asleep


But here on earth, in this world, nothing happened.


He will come one day,


He will be from the house of David ...


He will be great on this earth,


Everybody will admire him and serve him.


He will be called the Son of Man.


And they will call him the son of the Highest.


As a falling star,


As a beautiful vision, such will be his kingdom.


They will rule many years on earth.


And they will destroy everything.


One nation will destroy the other nation


One province will destroy the other province.


Until the people of God will throw away the swords.


By a Righteous  man sacrificed,


He will be anointed,


at the right time


He will stand against the Sons of Darkness,


Against the Godless Priest


And he will defeat them.”


Kittim--the sons of darkness



The scroll of the Messiah - fragments



... And nothing will happen until the war breaks out


of the Sons of Light with the Sons of Darkness,


of the Sons of Levi, the Sons of Judah, the Sons of Benjamin,


Against the hosts of Belial,


The inhabitants of Philistia,


Kittim from Assur; and those traitors who are helping them.


And the Sons of Light will take hold of Jerusalem anew; and of the Temple,


And the war against the seven countries will last forty years.


And this will happen; After the age of destruction, Disasters, Hatred, Diseases, Tribal war, Ethnic war, Genocidal war.


 And this will happen


When the Son of Man comes


From the house of David


From the house of the sons of the desert


He will be the anointed one...And he will be tempted by the devil in the forest, three times


He will be the winner...


And all who eat his bread ,


will raise their hand at him


They will speak about him in a wrong way


by means of their malicious tongues


Those who joined his assembly


They will slander him in front of the sons of evil.


And all  so that His word could be praised.


Because of their guilt


He hid the source of reason


The mystery of Truth


And the others will increase His misery even more


They will close Him in darkness


And his bread will be anguish


His drink will be continuously flowing tears


As His eyes will be covered by grief


His SOUL will be lost in everyday bitterness


He will be seized by fear and sadness.


Then a war in the whole world will begin


He will fight tirelessly


With the sons of Darkness, he will chase them away,


He will fight with the godless priest


And he will defeat him


And he will kill the wicked priest


In accordance with the law...


The Son of Man will stand at the head of the army


That will come out of the valley full of bones...


Thus he will say a prophecy


Just as it will be commanded to him, and as soon as he says it


A great tumult will break out


the bones will connect with each other


The muscles will begin to form on them


the body will grow on them


The skin will start to cover them


The spirit will enter them


They will come back to life, They will create a big army


And he will stand at the head of this army


And he will go to Jerusalem


He will enter through the gold gate,


He will rebuild the Temple


Just as he saw it in his visions,


And the Heavenly kingdom,


That was being awaited for such a long time,


Will come together with Him,


The saviour


Who will get the name







The War Scroll


Stand up Powerful Man, capture your captives,  Man of Glory,


And take Your captured  loot, O Valourous!


Put Your hand on the nape of Your enemies,


and Your leg on the pile of the beaten


And let Your sword swallow up the sinful body.


Fill with glory Your earth,


And your inheritance  with blessing.


Let there be many animals on Your fields,


And silver and gold and precious stones in Your palaces.


be very joyful Sion,


show itself Jerusalem among the cheerful shouts


And rejoice all cities of Judah!


Open for ever your gates,


so that the riches of the nations can be brought to you.


{The Scrolls from Qumran-The war rule}



 The Temple Scroll


And at the day of the fall of Kittim


there will be a fight and a big slaughter against the God of Israel,


as it is the day  a long time ago


by him set for a war,


which is to destroy the Sons of Darkness.


Then they will stand to a savage slaughter:


A gathering of gods and a gathering of people.


The Sons of Lightness and the camp of darkness


will fight together,


so that the power of God could be shown


amidst the noise of a big crowd


And the tumult of gods and the people at this day of destruction.


it will be the time of oppression for all people,


redeemed   by God.


And amidst all the suffering


there was nothing similar to it from the beginning


Until the end of eternal deliverance.


At the day of their fight with Kittim


They will fight a battle to the death


In this war the Sons of Lightness three times


will strengthen themselves in order to defeat the godlessness.


The scrolls from Qumran {The War Rule}.



The Scroll of the Treasure



But thanks to those who persevered in the Commandments of God


and they rescued themselves because of them, God set up


his Covenant for Israel for ever,


showing them the hidden things, because of which the whole Israel erred


his holy sabbaths and his glorious feasts,


his righteous testimonies and his true ways


and the wish of his will which a man should do,


in order to live thanks to them. {He} showed them the things


and they dug a well where water is plentiful,


But the one who despises it will not live.


{The Damascus Document}



The Sion Scroll



Sion when I call you to mind, I bless you.


With the whole heart, with the whole soul, with all strength,


For I love you when I call you to mind.


Sion! You are hope.


You are peace and Salvation.


From your womb the generations will be born,


they will feed themselves on your womb,


in your brightness they will protect themselves,


They will  look back upon your prophets.


There is no more evil in you.


The godless and the wicked will go away


And your sons will praise  you.


Your fiancés will pine for you


awaiting Salvation,


crying in your walls.


Sion, they expect hope,


They are waiting for Salvation.


Pseudo-Davidic Psalms {The Scrolls from Qumran}.



The Scroll of Crime



Be brave and strong! Be valorous!


Do not be afraid and do not fear, and let not your heart grow weak!


Do not be frightened and do not stand in awe of them!


Do not go back and do not run away from them,


as they are the gathering of wickedness


and all their deeds are darkness,


And to darkness aims all their desire.


They put their trust in the lie.


And their mightiness will disappear like smoke.


God of Israel, raise Your hand in Your wonderful power


over all the wicked spirits...


{The War Rule}



The Scroll of the Return



And my heart became acquainted with the blows


I was as a left man 


there was no shelter for me,


as my suffering developed in bitterness


as continuous and incurable pain


against me, as those who come down to Sheol,


my spirit will free itself from the dead although it reached as far as to their abyss.




The Scroll of the Templars



For they insulted me


and they paid no attention to me


When you showed your power through me.


For they expelled me from my earth


as a bird is expelled from its nest,


and all my friends and intimates


they dismissed from me


and they regarded me as a useless tool.


But these were they, the interpreters of the lie and the prophets of falsehood,


devised a plot against me with Belial,


they wanted your Law which You inscribed in my heart,


Change into flattery delusive for your people.


They did not give the potion of Cognition  to the thirsty,


but they were  giving vinegar to the thirsty.


to look at their daze


when they are behaving as if they were crazy


during their feasts


and they will be falling into their mesh.

{The scrolls from Qumran – Hymns}.




The scroll of the Caves




And here is the mystery; the godless change the works of truth, which


they transform into the lie. They do not write my words but


they proclaim wickedness  in my name, according to their wish and their will.


And here is the second mystery: the faithful, the saints, the  righteous read the works according to their truth.


{The scrolls of Qumran- The Book of Job}.




The Scroll of Love – The Scroll of the Saints




She revealed herself to me in all her greatness


and I got to know her


The flower of the vine gives the grape


And from the grape there comes into being the vine which cheers the hearts up.


I was walking along her flat ways,


Because I got to know her when I was young.


I heard her,


and I understood her to the core


And it was she who gave me to drink.


And that is why I pay tribute to her.


I admired her


I desired her.


And I did not turn away my face.


I craved her


With all her sublimity.


I opened the door,


Which allows to reveal the mystery.


I cleaned myself,


to get to know her in purity.


I had wisdom in my heart


and I did not leave her...{...}


O, you Many, listen to my words,


And you will receive gold and silver.


{Pseudo-Davidic Psalms - The Scrolls from Qumran}.






DSS - Dead Sea Scrolls

Hev - texts from Nachal Chewer

H - hymns

CD - The Damascus Document from the geniza of the synagogue in Cairo.

C - the texts from the geniza of the synagogue in Cairo.

D - The Damascus Document

Mas - the texts from Masada

Q- Qumran

1Q- cave 1, 2Q – cave 2; the successive symbols of the texts from the caves.

1QpHab - the Pesher to the Book of  Habakkuk – cave 1.

1QS- The Rule of the Association [The Community Rule]

1QSa- The Rule of the Whole Assembly [The Rule of the Congregation]

3Q15- The Copper Scroll from cave 3.

1QSb- The  Collection of Blessings

4QD a-h – copies of the Damascus Document

4QFlor- Midrash on the Last Days

4QPBless – The Blessing of the Patriarchs cave 4

11QTemple – The scroll of the Temple cave 2.

11Qtgjob – Targum of Job cave 11

4Q lev- copy of Leviticus cave 4

11QPs 2 – Psalms cave 2

1QapGen - Genesis Apocryphon cave 1

4QEzra – The Book of Ezra



The text was collected and compiled on the basis of the sources {bibliography below}

own material and Internet sources [photo.} Jessica.

© Magdalena Struska de Merowing. The text above is the text of the author.

Copying, distribution only by the permission of the author of the text and giving the link to the official site of the author.



1. Abecassis E. “Qumran” wyd Albatros Warszawa 2006.

2. Abecassis E. “ Skarb Swi┬▒tyni”wyd Albatros Warszawa 2005.

3. Vanderkam, James.C.” The DeadSea Scrolls Today 1994; polskie wydanie: “ Manuskrypty znad Morza martwego” przeklad R.Gromadzka- Warszawawyd Cyklady 1996.- relacja o stanie badan z roku 1994.

4. Vermes, G. „ The Dead Sea Scrolls In English : Third Edition Londyn, Penguin Group , 1987.- zawiera rzetelne przeklady wiekszosci zwojów . poprawione wydanie z roku 1995, zawiera dodatkowo 30 tekstów oraz Zwoju Miedzianego.

5. Zdun P. „ Piesni ofiary Szabatowej z uran i Masady” Kraków Enigmat Press, 1996.- przeklad i tekst majacy znaczenie do poznania angelogii i mistyki zydowskiej za czasów przedchrzescijanskich.

6. Garcia Martinez, Florentino „The Dead Sea Scrolls Translated : the Qumran Texts In English, Leiden Brill, 1996.- wyd.2 uzupelnione; Kompletny przeklad zwojów na jezyk angielski. Wyd. pierwsze hiszpanskie Madrid : trotta 1992.

7. Warszawa. PAX. „Dziesiec lat odkryc na Pustyni Judzkiej.

8. Muchowski Machowski. „rekopisy znad morza martwego” Kraków The Enigmat Press 1996.- pierwszy polski kompletny przeklad zwojów.

9. Laperrousaz, E.-M. Qoumran: L’Etablissement essenien des bords de la Mer Morte: Historie et archeologie du site, Paris Picard 1976.- niezalezne studium wykopalisk w Chirbet napisane przez archeologa.

10. Lohse, E. „ Die Texte aus Qumran: Hebraisch und Deutsch . wyd.2. Munchen: Kosel; Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, 1971. - wokalizowana edycja tekstów hebrajskich z dobrym przekladem niemieckim.

11. Kapera.Z.J. „ Pólwiecze sporu o zwoje znad Morza Martwego“ Kraków The Enigma Press 1996. - udokumentowana historia publikacji rekopisowi tzw. Trzeciej bitwy o zwoje.

12. Fitzmyer .J.A. „The Dead Sea Scrolls: Major Publications and Tools for Study” Atlanta , GA Scholars 1990.-  przewodnik bibliograficzny po problemach qumrantologii.

13. Allegro Jon Marko, „The dead Sea Scrolls :” A Reappraisal “; wyd.2 poprawione Londyn1964.- informacje dotyczace zawartosci zwojów.

14. Joseph. A. Fitzmyer SJ.. Paulist Press, New York Mahwah 1992, wyd polskie Enigma Press Kraków “101 pytan o Qumran”.


The Copper Scroll found in cave no 3 (Qumran) contains an inventory. It is a list of 61 towns where gold, silver and valuable sacral vessels were deposited. Most of these hiding places are situated in Jerusalem, SOME ARE SITUATED UNDER THE TEMPLE or nearby. Whereas others are situated in the surroundings of Jerusalem and some in Qumran. If the numbers given in this scroll are correct than the whole weight of the treasure hidden in different places is 65 tons of silver and 26 tons of gold (One ton = 1000 kilograms) which has a present-day value of 90 million marks (D.M.,- the sum given by Baigent, that is about 45 million Euro.). In comparison to other treasures it is not a sum that makes one dizzy (on the 13th of March 2005 the first prize in Lotto in Germany was 21 million Euro.). For example, a sunken Spanish galley will give much more profit. However, one should remember that the value of an ancient treasure because of its religious and symbolic character is much bigger. (....) From the text written on this copper scroll it unequivocally follows that what is meant is “a part of the treasure  that belonged to the Jerusalem temple and which was hidden from the Roman invaders”